Saturday, April 16, 2011

Masjid Agung Djenne yang Terbuat Dari Lumpur


Di negara-negara bermayoritas penduduk beragama islam, banyak ditemukan masjid-masjid dengan bangunan modern dari marmer, dan keramik pilihan lainnya yang membuat kita berdecak kagum.

Tapi pernah dengar masjid yang dibuat hanya dari lumpur dan tanah liat?Tepatnya di kota Djenne, Afrika Barat, yang merupakan bagian koloni Perancis, terdapat Masjid Agung Djenne yang terbuat dari lumpur. Dibangun selama 3 tahun, 1906 - 1909 dengan bantuan pemerintah Perancis.


Dinding Masjid yang dibangun di atas tanah seluas 5.625 m² (62.500 ft²), terbuat dari bata lumpur yang dibakar di bawah matahari - disebut ferey - bagian luarnya diplester lumpur. Ketebalan dinding antara 41 cm (16 inci) dan 61 cm (24 inci), bervariasi sesuai ketinggian tembok: bagian lebih tinggi dibangun lebih tebal karena dasar harus cukup lebar untuk mendukung berat. Beberapa batang pohon kelapa dimasukkan / ditanam dalam tembok bangunan untuk mengurangi proses peretakan akibat kelembaban dan suhu. Batang pohon kelapa yang ditanam ini juga berfungsi sebagai pijakan orang untuk mencapai bagian tertinggi tembok ketika melakukan ritual perbaikan tahunan. Bahan ferey akan memfilter panasnya matahari afrika di siang hari untuk digunakan sebagai penghangat ruangan alami di malam hari.

Setengah dari bangunan masjid ditutupi oleh atap dan separuh lainnya terbuka. Atap masjid ini ditopang oleh sembilan puluh tiang kayu. Ventilasi di atap yang atasnya dengan topi keramik bisa dilepas, untuk mengeluarkan udara panas dari dalam bangunan.

Para wisatawan biasanya memilih datang ke mesjid ini untuk menyaksikan festival renovasi masjid tahunan unik yang mereka sebut 'The Re-Mudding', antara Februari - April, tergantung dari tingkat curah hujan. Pada saat ini, seluruh penduduk Djenne akan berpartisipasi merenovasi masjid dengan melumuri seluruh dindingnya dengan lumpur yang diambil dari tanah sekitar mesjid dan dibantu dengan hujan. Acara ini menjadi tontonan menarik karena diselingin dengan pertunjukkan musik dan pesta kota yang berlimpah makanan lokal.




ENGLISH VERSION :

The Great Mosque of Djenné is the largest mud brick building in the world. The mosque is located in the city of Djenné in Mali on the flood plain of the Bani River. It is one of the most famous landmarks in Africa. Along with the 'Old Towns of Djenné' it was dubbed a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1988.

The date of construction of the first mosque in Djenné is unknown but dates as early as 1200 and as late as 1330 have been suggested.

The walls of the Great Mosque are made of sun-baked mud bricks called 'ferey', a mud based mortar, and are coated with a mud plaster which gives the building its smooth, sculpted look. The walls are between 16 in and 24 in (0.4 to 0.6 m) thick. The thickness varies depending on the wall's height: taller sections were built thicker because the base has to be wide enough to support the weight. Bundles of deleb palm wood were included in the building to reduce cracking caused by frequent drastic changes in humidity and temperature and to serve as readymade scaffolding for annual repairs.


The walls insulate the building from heat during the day and by nightfall have absorbed enough heat to keep the mosque warm through the night. Gutters, made of ceramic pipes, extend from the roofline and direct water drainage from the roof away from the walls. Half of the mosque is covered by a roof and the other half is an open air prayer hall or courtyard. The roof of the mosque is supported by ninety wooden pillars that span the interior prayer hall. Vents in the roof are topped with removable ceramic caps, which when removed allow hot air to rise out of the building and so ventilate the interior.

The Great Mosque was constructed on a raised platform with a surface area of 5625 m² (62,500 ft²), which has so far protected the mosque from even the most severe floods. (Wikipedia).




















Sumber : http://www.menarik-unic.co.cc/2011/04/masjid-agung-djenne-yang-terbuat-dari.html#ixzz1JkGsM1dI

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